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Shaping Europe’s digital future

Platform-to-business trading practices

The European Commission promotes fairness and transparency for businesses on online platforms.

Does the P2B apply to you? An explainer for businesses

The Regulation

The EU Regulation on platform-to-business relations (P2B Regulation) is the first ever set of rules for creating a fair, transparent and predictable business environment for smaller businesses and traders on online platforms.

The Commission created the Observatory on the online platform economy along with the new rules in order to monitor the latest trends in this sector. Platforms had to ensure they complied with the P2B Regulation before it started to apply on 12 July 2020.

Why it matters

Platforms offer unparalleled efficiencies in access to cross-border markets and are crucial for millions of successful firms. While the gateway position of online platforms enables them to organise millions of users, it also entails the risk of harmful trading practices, against which businesses have no effective redress.

Direct harm to businesses, as well as the possibility of such harm, undermines the innovation potential of platforms. With the P2B Regulation, the Commission delivers on a commitment to take actions against unfair contracts and trading practices in platform-to-business relations.

The Regulation is accompanied by an impact assessment that incorporates evidence and stakeholders' views collected during a two-year fact-finding exercise.

Guidelines on the requirements for ranking transparency

The Commission has published guidelines that address the main requirements for online platforms identified in the Regulation. The guidelines cover everything from the need to identify key algorithmic parameters behind ranking to their communication to businesses.

The guidelines will help online platforms to make the right information available to businesses so that they in turn can consider how best to increase and manage their online visibility. Ultimately, this enables consumers to receive the highest quality goods and services.

They guidelines will also provide valuable support for the adequate and effective enforcement of the transparency requirement to ensure online platforms are acting fairly in their ranking practices.

These guidelines are not legally binding.

Questions and answers

The Commission has prepared a Q&A document (.pdf) that can serve as a checklist for online platforms and search engines, particularly smaller ones, when implementing the new requirements.

The Q&A document can also help businesses get information on their new rights and the options available to resolve problems that may arise in their commercial relationships with online platforms. It contains useful information for online intermediation services, search engines and representative organisations or associations.

This Q&A is also available in the following languages (opens as a .pdf):

BG - CS - DA - DE - EL - ES - ET - FI - FR - HR - HU - IT - LT -  LV -  MT - NL - PL - PT - RO - SK - SL - SV.

Related documents

Legal documents

Studies and reports

Stakeholder consultations


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Final reports of the EU Observatory on the online platform economy

The EU Observatory for the Online Platform Economy, which informs the policy work of the Commission, by providing independent views on some of the key questions that have arisen in connection to the platform economy is today publishing the final reports from the expert group following stakeholder feedback and reactions on the progress reports which were published for consultation in July 2020.

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